## TUTORIALS

### Yielding, Plastic Deformation and Moment Redistribution in Beams (2/2)

In this tutorial, weâ€™re going to work out exactly how to determine the plastic moment capacity of a cross-section. Weâ€™ll also explore the concept of moment redistribution with an illustrative example. By the end of this post youâ€™ll be able to calculate the plastic moment capacity of any cross-section and understand in detail how moment redistribution occurs in a structure and ultimately how collapse can occur as a result of hinge formation.

### The Stress-Strain Curve & Plastic Hinges in Beams (1/2)

So why is plastic behaviour so important to understand? Itâ€™s probably fair to say that most of our engineering analysis assumes linearly elastic behaviour. But in reality, if we limit our designs to purely elastic behaviour, weâ€™re leaving a lot of structural capacity untapped. Structures very often have more load carrying capacity than a linearly elastic analysis suggests. In this post weâ€™ll explore this reserve capacity.

### Column Buckling: Realistic Buckling Behaviour (3/3)

In this final post in this series on Column Buckling, we’ll look at more realistic buckling behaviour you’re likely to observe in reality. In particular we’ll explore the behaviour of columns subject to eccentric axial load and columns with an initial deformation, i.e. columns that don’t start out straight.Â It’s important to recognise that for a column with these characteristics, we do not observe the strict mathematical behaviour predicted for perfectly loaded perfectly straight columns

### Column Buckling Equations (2/3)

In this post we’ll start to consider more realistic column structures. In particular we’ll determine an expression for the critical load for an axially loaded column with pinned ends. Then we’ll explore other support conditions. We’ll also introduce some other key concepts such as buckling modes and effective length.

### Column Buckling and Stability (1/3)

Long slender structural elements under the action of an axial load may fail due to buckling rather than direct compression. Buckling failure occurs when axial load induces a lateral deflection leading to a bending type failure. Buckling can also occur in plate and shell structures and is a relatively common cause of structural collapse. Depending on the geometry of the structural element, buckling can occur long before the material yields.